Fusion of Jung's Cognitive Functions with Rosenberg's Nonviolent Communication (NVC)

Jaime L. Prieto, Jr.

· NVC,Carl Jung

This post explores a fusion between Carl Jung’s Cognitive Functions (CF) with Marshall Rosenberg’s Nonviolent Communication (NVC) Components (NC) for the foundation of a relational model, already in use in the practice of NVC.

The association is mutually beneficial for both communities of practice – the Jung-derived methodologies and practices could be used to highlight areas of potential growth for someone practicing NVC, and the resulting model could benefit Jung-derived methodologies by providing a practical relational model in NVC.

For instance, Jungians would benefit from using NVC as a practical model for interpersonal communication, intimacy/connection, team collaboration, creating emotional safety in organizations, emotional liberation, collaborative problem solving, conflict mediation, and restorative justice.

The NVC community of practice would benefit from learning about the personal and collective unconscious as the deeper source of feelings/needs and stories/judgments [1], as well as practices for embodiment, rewilding oneself in nature, mindfulness/meditation, dreamwork, shadow-work, art, poetry, active imagination, personality typing (e.g. Myers-Briggs, Keirsey Seybold), and cultivating wholeness (e.g. Bill Plotkin and the Animas Valley Institute).

Prior Works

In searching for prior works that associate Carl Jung and Marshall Rosenberg, I came up only with references from William Parker’s Mandala of Love website:

William Parker states: “From my point of view, as a student of Consciousness and archetypal psychology, what makes NVC so interesting, is its obvious similarity with the mandala-wisdom that we find in Tibetan Buddhism, in Carl Jung’s archetypal psychology, in the Native North American ‘medicine wheel’ traditions, in the four ‘elements’ of Western Astrology, and in numerous other places.” [2]

In a separate article, Parker writes: “When we are familiar with the mandala archetype it becomes clear that the Buddha taught an approach to self-empathetic self-enquiry that is very similar to those that were developed in the 20th Century. Whereas I now interchangeably use Carl Jung’s four functions of Consciousness (Thinking, Feeling, Volition/Intuition, and Sensation), or Marshall Rosenberg’s ‘four components’ (Observations, Feelings, Needs and Requests), the Buddha used the ancient Indian ‘Five Skandhas’ framework, which is essentially the same – a mandala-form analysis of the cognitive-perceptual components, which aggregate together to form psychological parts.” [3]

Parker seems primarily focused on Buddhism and how it relates to Jung’s Cognitive Functions and Rosenberg’s NVC components. While Parker made an association between Jung and Rosenberg, more specifically, he associates Jung’s Thinking with Rosenberg’s Observation, and Sensation with Requests respectively (my mapping is different than Parker’s).

This post methodically maps Jung’s Cognitive Functions (CF) with Rosenberg’s NVC Components (NC) for a foundational relational model to be extended through future essays. The primary benefit will be an explosion of frameworks and practices for consciously deepening into the human experience in many dimensions: 1. within, 2. relationally with people, 3. the more-than-human, 4. collectively, 5. transpersonally. I’m very excited to explore this space, hoping to contribute to an explosion of collaborative personal growth – my contribution to Thomas Berry’s “Great Work”, supporting Joanna Macy’s “Great Turning.”

The practice of Nonviolent Communication (NVC) invites us to focus our attention on a set of principles, key differentiations and components within ourselves and in others that contribute to compassionate giving and receiving through connection. I define connection as a “symphony of mutual understanding[4]” between all parties in communication, including oneself.

By weaving together the CFs with the NCs, we can create an intentional practice of NVC that dynamically supports a cultivation of wholeness. Wholeness is cultivated through the rich connecting conversations, along with an emergent collective learning taking place.

Jung’s Cognitive Functions

The four CFs introduced by Carl Jung in his book Psychological Types [5]: thinking, feeling, sensing and intuition, are mental processes that contribute to consciousness, the means by which we learn about and interpret the world. These functions serve as a foundation for his theory on personality types, each of which is determined by an individual’s strengths and weaknesses in each CF.

The diagram below shows Jung’s four Cognitive Functions on a circle[6]:

broken image

Diagram 1. Jung’s Four Cognitive Functions[7]

The bottom of the circle is shaded/darkened to indicate emanation from the unconscious.

The following sections summarize Jung’s main views of each of the four functions (follow footnotes for references to the original sources)[8]:


According to Jung, thinking is "that psychological function which, in accordance with its own laws, brings given presentations into conceptual connection.[9]"

Here’s the definition of thinking from OxfordLanguages: “the process of using one's mind to consider or reason about something -- e.g. they have done some thinking about welfare reform"


Jung defined feeling as "primarily a process that takes place between the ego and a given content, a process, moreover, that imparts to the content a definite value in the sense of acceptance or rejection [...] Hence feeling is also a kind of judging, differing, however, from an intellectual judgment, in that it does not aim at establishing an intellectual connection but is solely concerned with the setting up of a subjective criterion of acceptance or rejection.[10]"

Here’s the definition of feeling from OxfordLanguages: “an emotional state or reaction – e.g. a feeling of joy."


Jung presented sensation as "that psychological function which transmits a physical stimulus to perception. [...] not only to the outer stimuli, but also to the inner, i.e. to changes in the internal organs. Primarily, therefore, sensation is sense-perception, i.e. perception transmitted via the sense organs and 'bodily senses' (kinaesthetic, vaso-motor sensation, etc.).[11]"

Here’s the definition of sensing from OxfordLanguages: “perceive by a sense or senses – e.g.

with the first frost, they could sense a change in the days."


Intuition is also presented as a basic psychological function as hunches and visions provide an alternative means of perception to sensation: "It is that psychological function which transmits perceptions in an unconscious way. Everything, whether outer or inner objects or their associations, can be the object of this perception. Intuition has this peculiar quality: it is neither sensation, nor feeling, nor intellectual conclusion, although it may appear in any of these forms.[12]"

Here’s the definition of intuition from OxfordLanguages: “the ability to understand something immediately, without the need for conscious reasoning – e.g. we shall allow our intuition to guide us."

Depth psychologist Eligio Stephen Gallegos writes: “Jung speaks of intuition as being the function of unconscious perception. Intuition may, in fact, derive from the interrelated functioning of all modes of knowing, analogous to the experience of depth that results from using both eyes simultaneously rather than only one eye, or each eye alternately. Intuition would then essentially be a depth of knowing that emanates from the harmony of all four modes, and as such could appear in the guise of any of them, and to a greater or lesser extent depending upon the degree of alignment.[13]”

Here’s the definition of imagination from OxfordLanguages: “the faculty or action of forming new ideas, or images or concepts of external objects not present to the senses – e.g. she'd never been blessed with a vivid imagination."

A second definition: “the ability of the mind to be creative or resourceful – e.g. technology gives workers the chance to use their imagination.”


Gallegos makes the point that Intuition derives from the other CFs and is different from them. Later in this post, we'll see that Gallegos states that the fourth CF is actually "imagery."

Rosenberg’s Components of Nonviolent Communication (NVC)

Nonviolent Communication (NVC) is a process for focusing our attention in ways that contribute to compassionate giving and receiving. NVC is based on the principles of nonviolence-- the natural state of compassion when no violence is present in the heart. NVC begins by assuming that we are all compassionate by nature and that violent strategies—whether verbal or physical—are learned behaviors taught and supported by the prevailing culture.

The NVC community is active in over 65 countries around the globe. Marshall Rosenberg started developing the framework for Nonviolent Communication (NVC) in the 1960’s. Click here for a blog on “What is NVC?”

There are four NCs. The following sections summarize the components using Marshall Rosenberg quotes from the NVC book[14] along with my commentary.


“The first component of NVC entails the separation of observation from evaluation. We need to clearly observe what we are seeing, hearing, or touching that is affecting our sense of well-being, without mixing in any evaluation.[15]”

NVC does not mandate that we remain completely objective and refrain from evaluating. It only requires that we maintain a separation between our observations and our evaluations.”


The second NC entails identifying one's feelings. In searching his NVC book for a clear definition of feelings, I couldn’t find one. Instead, Rosenberg describes how feelings are used, along with the cost of unexpressed feelings:

“The mature person becomes able to differentiate feelings into as many nuances, strong and passionate experiences, or delicate and sensitive ones as in the different passages of music in a symphony.[16]”

“In expressing our feelings, it helps to use words that refer to specific emotions, rather than words that are vague or general. For example, if we say, ‘I feel good about that,’ the word good could mean happy, excited, relieved or a number of other emotions.[17]”

“NVC distinguishes the expression of actual feelings from words and statements that describe thoughts, assessments, and interpretations.[18]”

Rosenberg and the NVC community of practice have compiled lists to “help you increase your power to articulate feelings and clearly describe a whole range of emotional states.[19]”

There are two main categories of feelings – 1. Feelings when needs are being met, 2. Feelings when needs not met. Here are some examples of each:

Feelings when needs are met

Amazed, amused, appreciative, astonished, blissful, buoyant, calm, cheerful, comfortable ….

Feelings when needs are not met

Afraid, alarmed, aloof, angry, annoyed, anxious, bewildered, bitter, blah, bored, cold, concerned, confused ….

In my personal practice, I prefer to think of needs satisfaction as a rainbow of levels; the view that needs are either met or not seems simplistic and not as congruent with my experience. For me, feelings indicate a character and an intensity of the fulfillment levels of needs, where the intensity might be gauged between 1 and 10, for example.



The third NC invites us to imagine why the feeling is present for us – i.e. what’s the value or need behind the feeling. Rosenberg defines needs as “the root of our feelings” – i.e. what causes feelings is the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of our needs. NVC invites us to consider that what other people say or do might stimulate feelings in us, but are not the cause of our feelings. NVC encourages us to “accept responsibility for what we do [internally] to generate our own feelings.[20]”

Needs are often confused with strategies. Strategies are what we do/use as a means for satisfying our needs, such as any specific combination of the following references to a Person, Location, Action, Time, Object (PLATO). Needs are independent of PLATO. There is no conflict between needs. If you perceive a conflict, you are referencing a strategy.

Below is a list of strategies and needs generated by students of NVC:

Furthermore, Rosenberg continues: “Judgments of others are alienated expressions of our own unmet needs.”

Here are some examples of human needs that we all share: Autonomy, Celebration, Integrity, Authenticity, Interdependence, Play, Spiritual Communion, Physical Nurturance.

A more complete list of needs (click here) is available.


The fourth NC is where we use our creative thinking to formulate and clearly state “what we would like to request of others in order to enrich life for us”[21] based on what we learned from the previous three components. We make requests asking for what we want, instead of what we don’t want – i.e. using positive language – e.g. would you be willing to give an example of a positive language request? An example of a negative language request: “Would you avoid writing paragraphs that are not clear?” The main point is that asking someone to not do something is confusing and not clear.

In the internal practice of NVC empathy, we make a request of ourselves to focus our attention on each of the NCs.

In the external practice of NVC, we’re primarily concerned with connection. We are invited to seek a shared understanding before developing strategies or desired outcomes. While facilitating connection, requests are used to shift the focus of our attention taking turns between all parties to a conversation. For instance, I might ask: “How do you feel about what I just said?” as a means of shifting the focus to the other person I’m talking to. Or perhaps, if I wanted to make sure that I’m expressing myself clearly, I might ask for a reflection of what I said: “Would you be up for telling me what you heard in your own words?”

Finally, a strategy request entails identifying the Person, Location, Action, Time, Object (PLATO) that would be satisfying for us. When practicing NVC, we strive to be able to hear “no” as a gift of authenticity.

“Requests are received as demands when others believe they will be blamed or punished if they do not comply.[22]”

A Turning Wheel of Knowing

Diagram 1 showed how Jung organized the CFs in a circle. Jung used the circle to map the function of “thinking” opposite to “feeling,” and “sensing” opposite to “intuition" as a means of creating psychological types, based on the assumption that people were either strong in one but not the other.

Jung states, “If we think of the psychological functions as arranged in a circle, then the most differentiated function is usually the carrier of the ego and, equally regularly, has an auxiliary function attached to it. The “inferior” function, on the other hand, is unconscious and for that reason is projected into a non-ego.[23]”

If we relax the constraint that people are one or the other, but rather are able to cultivate any of the CFs that are weakest, we can integrate it with NVC to develop a dynamic process that is useful in conversation.

More recently, Eligio Stephen Gallegos has renamed Jung’s CFs as “Windows of Knowing” in his book Animals of the Four Windows.[24] He also makes the point that Jung, who was gifted in his internal use and visualization of imagery, so that it was intuitive to him. Therefore, the fourth CF would more accurately be labeled as “imagery.[25]”

Depth psychologists Bill Plotkin, Ph.D., and Stephen Larsen, Ph.D., agree with Gallegos on renaming “intuition” as “imagery" or "imagination” as they stated in the commentary to Gallego’s book.

Larsen writes: "Stephen Gallegos has opened his conceptual windows wider than before, to include the four human faculties also discussed by Carl Jung. Thinking, feeling and sensation are presented similarly to Jung's system, but his new twist is creatively insightful: the fourth function is imagery, not intuition as Jung has it. (Gallegos envisions intuition as potential to all the functions.)[39]"

The remainder of this section explores the association between Jung’s CFs with Rosenberg’s NCs.

If we swap the sides[26] of “sensing” and “intuition” from Diagram 1, we are able to more directly match the order in which the NCs are practiced (Observation, Feeling, Need, Request)[27], resulting in Diagram 2 below:

Wheel of Knowing combines Jung's Cognitive Functions with Rosenberg's Nonviolent Communication

Diagram 2. Jung’s Cognitive Functions along with Rosenberg’s NVC Components

The circle can now be used as a wheel when rotated toward the left as if it were on the ground; we could also turn our focused attention around the wheel in the clockwise direction as we gather information about ourselves through each CF/NC. The wheel gives us a device to focus our attention on specific functions/components, thereby giving us a framework to extend our model to be used for interpersonal/inter-being[28] communication. A simplified way of practicing NVC is to follow the wheel sequentially vocalizing each of the four components [29][30]. Let’s look at how the CFs relate to the NCs.

Given that NVC is a process language, we’ll follow the order of the NCs. Each section title follows the convention: CF / NC, as shown in Diagram 2.



Sensing is the way in which we perceive the world through our five senses: vision, taste, smell, touch, sound.

One of the primary goals of NVC in the Observation component is to separate observable facts from evaluation; otherwise, conflict is more likely.

Marshall Rosenberg writes, “We need to clearly observe what we are seeing, hearing, or touching that affects our sense of well-being, without mixing in any evaluation.[31]”

To identify the observations, I imagine using a video camera and describing as accurately as possible what I hear and see without evaluating or judging it. For instance, if on the video I heard Maggie say, “Mary Oliver’s poetry is inspiring,” I could quote her as an observational step. Similarly, I might describe what I’m seeing: “Maggie is on stage at a political rally in DC reading Mary Oliver’s ‘Morning Poem’ into a microphone,” which more closely follows the traditional interpretation of the word “observation.” The other senses can be similarly transformed into observations.

For taste, I might say something like, “I took a bite of that dish, and I’m telling myself it tastes like chicken.” (An easy way to transform a judgment into an observation is to own that you are making a judgment — e.g. using the phrase “I’m telling myself that ”).

For smell, I could say, “I walked into the kitchen and smelled the cooking garlic.”

For touch, I could say, “I touched the bark of the tree, which I experienced to be rough.”

In short, all of the senses can be reframed into NVC observational language, even though some of the first hand experience of the senses is lost [32].



The feeling dimension of CF and NC seem to match perfectly. Let’s spend a little time defining feelings from various perspectives.

Generically speaking, emotions are what more closely result from the stimuli of our senses. Feelings are our mind’s interpretation of that experience.

From Jung’s perspective, feelings emanate from the unconscious – “the dark half” of the circle – “imparting a definite value in the sense of acceptance or rejection.”

From Rosenberg’s perspective, feelings describe the character and intensity of the fulfillment/satisfaction level of our needs.[33]

Using Jung’s words: “imparting a value of acceptance” when needs are satisfied, “or rejection” when needs are not satisfied.

Feelings are often the result of some bodily response to a sensation, so that an internal sensing of the body assists in the identification of feelings.

Feelings are like the engine light on your car’s dashboard, giving the health status of the engine (i.e. your needs). You wouldn’t blame the engine light if it suddenly turned red; rather, you’d be concerned about the engine (i.e. your needs).

Another metaphor: Feelings are like the music from the orchestra of needs, each need being a different instrument — sometimes playing solo, together with others, and other times they're silent. For each need, there’s an associated feeling; the sounds emanating from the orchestra are harmonious and satisfying when needs are being fulfilled, and out of tune and dissatisfying when needs are unfulfilled.

Click here for a FREE download of nature inspired feelings/needs PDF



My favorite definition: Needs are life-energy in us seeking fulfillment[34], independently of a Person, Location, Action, Time, Object (PLATO) – like connection, community, autonomy, freedom, meaning, sustainability. Needs can also be seen as intrinsic motivators – or internal potentials that want to be satisfied.

Imagination has always played a role in NVC considering that identifying a need that is present can be a process of discovery. When I first started learning about needs, I studied a list of needs to see which words jumped out at me as a hypothesis for the cause behind a feeling – then I’d check in with myself to see if there was a resonance [35]. As I’ve become familiar with the lexicon of needs, it’s now a practice that flows from the imagination based on inner experience, usually answering “what do I value in this moment?” or “what am I longing for right now?”



An NVC request is a specific form of thinking that is formulated using all of the knowledge gained from the previous components. Thus as Jung states: thinking “brings given presentations [of NCs] into conceptual connection” to formulate a request. The thinking intellect may generate a request to themselves or to another person aimed at satisfying their needs.

NVC requests are an inquiry into the willingness of the recipient in participating in a clearly defined strategy; strategies are a plan for how we meet our needs – what we do, with who, where, when and with what objects. NVC suggests starting with connection requests that support arriving at a mutual understanding of feelings/needs before getting into action-related strategies.

Requests ought to be clear, doable, and positive action. Ideally, NVC suggests starting with a self-connection request.

For example, if I notice strong feelings, I’d request of myself:

“Would I be willing to give myself empathy [36][37]?” and then, I’d proceed with identifying my Observation, Feeling, Need and Request (OFNR), sometimes repeating the sequence several times until I’m clear with my internal state of well-being.

Once you’ve acknowledged your internal landscape, then a natural compassion, openness, and curiosity arise within. You’ll be able to generate requests of others with a clearer mind and a greater openness to explore strategies. You might start by asking if they have bandwidth to listen: “Would you be up for talking for 10 minutes about this issue that’s coming up for me?”

NVC differentiates between requests, wherein you’re able to hear a “no”, from demands, wherein you expect a “yes” and wouldn’t accept a “no.” The acceptance or non-acceptance of a “no” is an internal process not dictated by the words used. The request can be stated in perfect NVC language and still be a demand if “no” is not acceptable.

However, if there is an explicit or implicit punishment, demands are much clearly identifiable – e.g. “Would you be willing to work overtime this weekend? You won’t have a job if you don’t.”

Requests can also be used for creating connection, such that the needs of all parties are mutually understood. Requests in NVC typically result in formulating a strategy collaboratively, specifying one or many PLATOs.


Rotation of the Wheel of Knowing

The following graphic demonstrates the rotation of the Wheel of Knowing through the sequence of Cognitive Functions / NVC Components as it rolls downhill toward the left. Each line represents the ground at a different time at 90 degree rotation intervals (a quarter of a circle), highlighting the current CF / NC of focus touching the ground.

broken image

Diagram 3. Rotation of the Wheel of Knowing


Weaving Carl Jung’s four CFs with Marshall Rosenberg’s Nonviolent Communication (NVC) supports an emergent practice of cultivating wholeness - emergent because it works directly with what’s alive in the moment.

In the context of this synthesis of paradigms, wholeness is the capacity of living fully from Jung’s four CFs[38]. Most of us are strong in some of the components, while weaker in others.

Becoming aware of our weaknesses in each CF/NC allows us to find practices to get us closer to wholeness. Rosenberg’s NVC components embody Jung’s CFs by defining specific ways of applying them in the context of a relational model.

This post showed how NVC components are specific forms of Jung's CFs. When organized in a Wheel of Knowing, NVC can be seen as a practice for cultivating wholeness.

Viewing NVC as an embodiment of Jung’s CFs opens up the possibility of leveraging other Jungian-based practices for deepening one's NVC practice.

In short, Jung’s and Rosenberg’s works are complementary. Future posts will show other instances of this synergy.


Change Log

  • 7/12/2023 Added this Change Log section. Inspired by comment from user “Out of the Blue” in Animas Valley Commons on 7/8/2023
  • 7/12/2023 In the section "Jung's Cognitive Functions": Deleted the following line: “As a result of Gallego’s contribution, I’ll be referencing the fourth CF as Intuition-Imagining.” Replaced it with "Gallegos makes the point that Intuition derives from the other CFs and is different from them. Later in this post, we'll see that Gallegos states that the fourth CF is actually 'imagery.'"
  • 7/12/2023 In Diagram 2: Changed label from “Intuition-Imagining” to “Imagining”
  • 7/12/2023 Changed Section title from “Intuition-Imagining/Needs” to “Imagining/Needs”
  • 7/12/2023 Added Stephen Larsen, Ph.D. commentary referenced through endnote [39]
  • 7/13/2023 Added the section "Rotation of the Wheel of Knowing", which includes diagram 3
  • Fixed some broken links to CNVC feelings/needs with this link.

Endnotes and References

  1. NVC is not a complete model of a “language of life” without acknowledging the unconscious; all of the conflicts behind the scenes between certified NVC trainers supports that hypothesis.
  2. William Parker, https://mandala-of-love.com/2017/04/22/nonviolent-communication-nvc-mandala-wisdom/ 
  3. William Parker, https://mandala-of-love.com/2018/04/18/empathy-and-self-empathy-communication-and-self-enquiry/ 
  4. Jaime L. Prieto, Jr., The Joy of Compassionate Connecting - The Way of Christ Through Nonviolent Communication, Compassionate Connecting, Aliso Viejo, CA, Oct 2010, p. 178
  5. Psychological Types (German: Psychologische Typen) is a book by Carl Jung that was originally published in German by Rascher Verlag in 1921,[1] and translated into English in 1923, becoming volume 6 of The Collected Works of C. G. Jung
  6. In the form of a mandala, “a geometric figure representing the universe in Hindu and Buddhist symbolism” (Oxford)
  7. Jung, Carl. Psychology and Alchemy (PDF) from the Collected Works, Volume 12, p. 134.
  8. From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jungian_cognitive_functions 
  9. Jung, C. G. (1971) [1921]. Psychological Types. Collected Works of C. G. Jung. Vol. 6. Translated by Adler, Gerhard; Hull, R. F. C. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-5086-0. JSTOR j.ctt5hhqtj, Ch. 11
  10. Jung, C. G. (1971), Ch. 11
  11. Ibid, Ch. 11
  12. Ibid, Ch. 11
  13. Eligio Stephen Gallegos, “Animals of the Four Windows: Integrating Thinking, Sensing, Feeling and Imagery,” (Moon Bear Press), May 2020
  14. Marshall B. Rosenberg, Ph.D., Nonviolent Communication - A Language of Life, PuddleDancer Press, Encinitas, CA, 2005
  15. NVC, p. 26
  16. NVC, p. 37
  17. NVC, p. 43
  18. NVC, p. 46
  19. NVC, p. 43
  20. NVC, p. 49
  21. NVC, p. 67
  22. NVC, p. 79
  23. Jung, Carl. Psychology and Alchemy (PDF) from the Collected Works, Volume 12, p. 133.
  24. Eligio Stephen Gallegos, “Animals of the Four Windows: Integrating Thinking, Sensing, Feeling and Imagery,” (Moon Bear Press), May 2020
  25. Ibid, p. 1, “If you are a Jungian, the fourth one will seem strange to you. Jung, in speaking of the four functions of consciousness, spoke of the fourth one as intuition . But there is a good reason to rename it. Jung was in a peculiar position in that he was highly intuitive, and his imagery was very powerful. Furthermore, his intuition, i.e. knowing things beyond the present moment and circumstance and for which there is no immediate evidence, came to him through his imagery.”
  26. This swap is possible because there's nothing about Jung's model that suggests accumulation from/of directional movement, so a swap of placement to accommodate the fusion with another model that does require directionality is a useful accommodation that doesn't fundamentally alter the purpose or meaning of Jung's model.
  27. I placed Sensing/Observations in the East direction of the circle foreshadowing the contribution of Bill Plotkin’s four-directional map of the human psyche described in his book “Wild Mind – Field Guide to the Human Psyche”
  28. “Inter-being” was included to consider communication with the more-than-human world.
  29. Metaphorically opening and looking through each window frame through the glass of the component.
  30. The written invitations in this post and in the many NVC books are complemented by the oral tradition captured by the community of practitioners of NVC, some of which studied with Marshall Rosenberg, and some of which have gone through educational training to be recognized as NVC trainers by the Center of Nonviolent Communication (CNVC), the non-profit organization founded by Marshall Rosenberg.
  31. Marshall Rosenberg, Nonviolent Communication - A Language of Life, PuddleDancer Press, Encinitas California, 2005, pp. 26-28.
  32. The written language is partially responsible for separating humanity from the sensorial world of nature, formerly preserved by the oral traditions – reference cultural ecologist and geophilosopher David Abram in his book “The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World.”
  33. This is my interpretation of what feelings meant to Rosenberg in the practice of NVC.
  34. Attributed to NVC Trainer Julie Greene.
  35. The practice of searching for the words that best describe my needs led me to develop the Earth-Rooted Needs Flower where I used a flower as a framing metaphor for organizing needs. Free download available here.
  36. NVC self-empathy is a process of introspection for the purpose of getting clear of the NCs.
  37. The phrase “would I be willing” came up so often in my self-empathy practice that I now use the mnemonic WIBW for convenience.
  38. The book Wild Mind adds more depth and complexity to each window of knowing by including archetypes of wholeness and subpersonalities to be healed and integrated into the Self and will be covered in a future post.
  39. Stephen Larsen, Ph.D. New Paltz, New York, February, 1991 commentary in Gallego's “Animals of the Four Windows: Integrating Thinking, Sensing, Feeling and Imagery,” (Moon Bear Press), May 2020


Special thanks to Taylor Johnson for her keen editing help and insight.


© 2023 Jaime L. Prieto, Jr., CompassionateConnecting.com, All Rights Reserved.